Difference between revisions of "Drugi Obieg (Polish Unofficial Publishing Network)"

From Censorpedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
 
(One intermediate revision by one other user not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
====Date: [[:Category:1975 - 1984|1975 - 1984]] [[:Category:|]] [[:Category:|]]====
+
====Date: [[:Category:1975|1975]]====
  
  
  
====Region: [[:Category:Europe|Europe]] [[:Category:|]] [[:Category:|{location3}]]====
+
====Region: [[:Category:Europe|Europe]]====
  
  
  
====Subject: [[:Category:Political/Economic/Social Opinion|Political/Economic/Social Opinion]] [[:Category:|]] [[:Category:|]]====
+
====Subject: [[:Category:Political/Economic/Social Opinion|Political/Economic/Social Opinion]]====
  
  
  
====Medium: [[:Category:Literature|Literature]] [[:Category:Print Journalism|Print Journalism]] [[:Category:|]]====
+
====Medium: [[:Category:Literature|Literature]], [[:Category:Print Journalism|Print Journalism]]====
  
 
----
 
----
  
 
'''Artist:''' Many Polish authors whose work faced censorship
 
'''Artist:''' Many Polish authors whose work faced censorship
 
 
  
 
'''Confronting Bodies:''' The Polish government
 
'''Confronting Bodies:''' The Polish government
 
 
  
 
'''Dates of Action:''' 1976, 1977, 1981, 1985
 
'''Dates of Action:''' 1976, 1977, 1981, 1985
 
 
  
 
'''Location:''' Poland
 
'''Location:''' Poland
  
 +
'''Description of Artwork:''' The term Drugi Obieg, meaning second circulation, refers to the underground publishers and publications that began to appear in Poland in the mid 1970s.  The publishers made an effort to make their publications seem legal based on agreements the Polish government had signed as part of the Helsinki Final Act in 1975 regarding human and civil rights. <P>
  
 +
'''The Incident:''' In the mid-1970s the Polish constitution was revised, leading to protests from intellectuals.  This led to the blacklisting of many Polish writers and many works were banned. Worker's riots and strikes helped in the forming of an underground information network.  One of the first publications produced from this network was ''Zapis'' (Recorded Work) which was published in Britain and then smuggled in to Poland.  Poland's leading writers contributed and helped found the publication.  In 1977 another literary journal was published in the underground called ''Puls''.  This publication sought to unify writers.  Martial law was declared in 1981 and many of the second circulation works were confiscated, including many copies of ''Zapis''.  The government failed to totally eradicate the underground publishing network however.  In 1985 they introduced new laws to punish printers and distributors of illegal materials. <P>
  
'''Description of Artwork:''' The term Drugi Obieg, meaning second circulation, refers to the underground publishers and publications that began to appear in Poland in the mid 1970sThe publishers made an effort to make their publications  seem legal based on agreements the Polish government had signed as part of the Helsinki Final Act in 1975 regarding human and civil rights. <P>
+
'''Results of Incident:''' In 1988 the publications of second circulation were widely available, especially on college campusesFinally in 1989 after round table talks independent publishers were allowed to take part in the Warsaw International Book Fair. <P>
  
  
 
+
'''Source:''' Censorship: A World Encyclopedia
'''The Incident:''' In the mid-1970s the Polish constitution was revised, leading to protests from intellectuals.  This led to the blacklisting of many Polish writers and many works were banned. Worker's riots and strikes helped in the forming of an underground information network.  One of the first publications produced from this network was "Zapis" (Recorded Work) which was published in Britain and then smuggled in to Poland.  Poland's leading writers contributed and helped found the publication.  In 1977 another literary journal was published in the underground called "Puls".  This publication sought to unify writers.  Martial law was declared in 1981 and many of the second circulation works were confiscated, including many copies of "Zapis".  The government failed to totally eradicate the underground publishing network however.  In 1985 they introduced new laws to punish printers and distributors of illegal materials. <P>
 
  
  
  
'''Results of Incident:''' In 1988 the publications of second circulation were widely available, especially on college campuses.  Finally in 1989 after round table talks independent publishers were allowed to take part in the Warsaw International Book Fair. <P>
+
[[Category:1975]]
  
 +
[[Category:1976]]
  
 +
[[Category:1977]]
  
'''Source:''' Censorship: A World Encyclopedia
+
[[Category:1981]]
  
 +
[[Category:1985]]
  
  
[[Category:1975 - 1984]]
+
[[Category:1970s]]
  
[[Category:]]
+
[[Category:1980s]]
  
[[Category:]]
+
[[Category:1900s]]
  
 
[[Category:Europe]]
 
[[Category:Europe]]
  
[[Category:]]
+
[[Category:Poland]]
 
 
[[Category:]]
 
  
 
[[Category:Political/Economic/Social Opinion]]
 
[[Category:Political/Economic/Social Opinion]]
  
[[Category:]]
+
[[Category:Literature]]
  
[[Category:]]
+
[[Category:Print Journalism]]
  
[[Category:Literature]]
 
  
[[Category:Print Journalism]]
 
  
[[Category:]]
 
  
[[Category:Many Polish authors whose work faced censorship]]
 
  
  
  
 
__NOTOC__
 
__NOTOC__

Latest revision as of 21:51, 10 February 2012

Date: 1975

Region: Europe

Subject: Political/Economic/Social Opinion

Medium: Literature, Print Journalism


Artist: Many Polish authors whose work faced censorship

Confronting Bodies: The Polish government

Dates of Action: 1976, 1977, 1981, 1985

Location: Poland

Description of Artwork: The term Drugi Obieg, meaning second circulation, refers to the underground publishers and publications that began to appear in Poland in the mid 1970s. The publishers made an effort to make their publications seem legal based on agreements the Polish government had signed as part of the Helsinki Final Act in 1975 regarding human and civil rights.

The Incident: In the mid-1970s the Polish constitution was revised, leading to protests from intellectuals. This led to the blacklisting of many Polish writers and many works were banned. Worker's riots and strikes helped in the forming of an underground information network. One of the first publications produced from this network was Zapis (Recorded Work) which was published in Britain and then smuggled in to Poland. Poland's leading writers contributed and helped found the publication. In 1977 another literary journal was published in the underground called Puls. This publication sought to unify writers. Martial law was declared in 1981 and many of the second circulation works were confiscated, including many copies of Zapis. The government failed to totally eradicate the underground publishing network however. In 1985 they introduced new laws to punish printers and distributors of illegal materials.

Results of Incident: In 1988 the publications of second circulation were widely available, especially on college campuses. Finally in 1989 after round table talks independent publishers were allowed to take part in the Warsaw International Book Fair.

Source: Censorship: A World Encyclopedia